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New Horizons Golf Approach
I n n o v a t i v e  C o a c h i n g  F o r  G o l f e r s
As already mentioned there are three Trail Arm Actions discussed in Power of 3 Golf biomechanics.  Those three features are On-Top, Side-On, and Under.  
When we talk about Trail Arm Actions we are talking about the manner in which the dominant forearm is aligned as the stroke moves through the takeaway and
delivery.  For right-handed golfers the dominant forearm is the right forearm, for left-handed golfers the dominant forearm is the left forearm.  Simply put, the
dominant forearm is the trailing forearm.  If you are ambidextrous, a right handed person playing left handed golf, or more likely a left-handed person playing right
handed golf, your dominant forearm is the forearm that matches the side you are playing golf from.  For example, if you are left-handed playing from the right-
handers side your dominant forearm is your right forearm.  For example, Ben Hogan is said to have been born left-handed, however he played from the right-
handers side.  Doing so he believed the right arm delivered the swing and he swung the club 100 times a day holding the club in his right hand only.  In his book
Five Lessons: The Modern Fundamentals of Golf Hogan described the proper arm swing path for delivery as a type of side-arm throw.  He clearly understood the
importance of the dominant forearm swing path.  However, Hogan’s description was only one of three viable options.  On-top golfers deliver the swing while the
dominant forearm faces more downward.  This would be as if you were throwing something down at the ground near the ball address location.  With this in mind,
on-top golfers often feel a palm down delivery action.  This feeling is truly a sign of being on-top.  Side-on  golfers deliver the swing while the dominant forearm
faces more to the side.  This is as if you were trying to throw a ball to the side of you on about a waist-high trajectory.  Side-on golfers often feel a more cornering
type of delivery action.  Under golfers deliver the swing while the forearm is facing more upward.  This would be as if you were throwing a rock in such a manner
to skip it across water.  Under golfers often feel a more down the line delivery action.

Another way to think about these actions is the manner in which you would move on-top of something, move something to the side, or pick something up.  For
example, if you had to get on-top of a counter you could position your hands palm down on the counter and push yourself up on the counter.  In doing so your
forearms would face downward.  You can also think of it as if you had to push something downward with your dominant hand.  You can also think of it as replacing
a lid on a garbage can while holding the handle with only your dominant hand.  In either case you would also position your palm and forearm downward.  If you
needed to move a box to the side on a shelf you would position your hands on each side facing inward.  This would position your forearms in a more side-on
facing manner.  From here you can easily move the box to the side.  Even if you were only going to use your dominant hand to push the box to the side you would
use the same technique.  It would simply be one-handed.  Under golfers position the dominant forearm as if they were going to pick something up.  To pick up a
box for example I can slide my hands under the box positioning my forearms in a more upward looking alignment.  If you were going to pick up a dumbbell and
perform a standard dumbbell curl you would also hold the dumbbell in an under manner with your palm and forearm facing more upward.  This brings me to an
interesting conditioning fact.  When it comes to working out I encourage on-top golfers to perform more reverse curls than standard or hammer curls.  Reverse
curls are performed with the palm facing downward as the forearm reaches parallel to the ground.  Hammer curls are performed with the palms facing inward, and
standard curls are performed with the palm facing upward as the forearm reaches parallel to the ground.  Although performing a variety of each is recommended,
performing extra repetitions of the style that matches your arm  swing path is highly recommended.  This means side-on golfers perform extra hammer curls and
under golfers perform extra standard curls.

It is also important to discuss how your elbow action responds to each of the basic Trail Arm Actions.  This is because your elbow is the link between your forearm
and your upper arm.  That is important because the positioning of the elbow helps support how the trail arm actions are performed.  An easy way to understand
how your elbow action matches each trail arm action is to perform a basic exercise. To perform the exercise stand-up and hold your right arm straight out in front
of you  (see pictures).  For left-handed golfers hold your left arm out in front of you.  With your arm in front of you tuck your elbow in front of your body.  Tuck it
into a position just to the side of your belly button.  Notice that it is easiest to do this when the forearm is facing more toward the sky, and this puts it in an under
attitude.  Try to keep your forearm in either a side-on attitude or an on-top attitude and move your elbow in front of your body.  It will be impossible, or nearly
impossible depending on your biomechanics.  However, everyone finds it much easier to tuck the  elbow in front with an under forearm attitude.  Now, hold your
arm out in front of you once again, and then pull your elbow to the side of your body.  Pull it to the side so that the elbow is even with the seam line of your shirt.   
Once again notice where the inside portion of your forearm is facing.  It will be facing inward in a side-on manner.  This is the most natural way to position the arm
on the side of the body.  Now, hold your arm out in front of you once again, then move your elbow back and around toward your spine.  The easiest way to do this
is to put your hand in a palm down position.  If you make your elbow go back while maintaining either an under or side-on attitude the action will become
restricted.  Once you adjust your forearm into an on-top position you will be able to move your elbow even further back and around.  If we go back to performing
curls we would find out that it is easier to perform reverse curls with the elbows more back than normal, hammer curls with the elbows more on the side and
standard curls with the elbows more in front.

By understanding how these actions work naturally, we can understand just how your elbows act in the golf swing.  What this tells us is that under golfers will tuck
the trail arm elbow in front during delivery.  They often do so at address and during the takeaway as well.  By feeling the elbow tucked in during delivery, under
golfers are sure to deliver the swing in an under manner.  Side-on golfers will marry the right arm to the right side as the swing transitions down toward the
delivery position.  By marrying the right arm to the right side, side-on golfers are sure to deliver the swing in a more side-on manner.  On-top golfers will use an
elbow-back alignment as the swing move down toward the delivery position.  By delivering the swing with a more elbow-back attitude, on-top golfers are sure to be
more on-top throughout the delivery action.  In theory it is advantageous to address the ball while considering those elbow positions, and to use those alignments
during the takeaway.  We always like nice clean and symmetrical activities.  However, it is only technically necessary to make sure the trail elbow alignments are
being used from the top of the backswing into delivery.  For example, Jack Nicklaus used a more On-Top takeaway, but delivered the stroke more Under.
1) Start with your right arm extended out in front of
your body as shown in the far left picture.

2) Then tuck your elbow in front of your body,
somewhere to the side of your belly button.  It is
much easier to tuck your elbow in front of your body   
while positioning the forearm to face upward in and
under  attitude.  It is very constricted to do so with a
forearm that is facing  inward, or in a side-on
attitude.  It is almost impossible to do so with the
forearm facing downward or in an on-top alignment.
1) Start with your right arm extended out in front of
your body as shown in the far left picture.

2) Then pull your arm to the side of your body until
your  elbow is even with the seam line of your shirt.
The most natural way to do so is to position your
forearm facing inward in a side-on manner.  When
positioning the forearm either up or downward you will
feel more tension in your arms and shoulders. This
makes the old adage of marrying the right arm to the
right side mainly a side-on action.
1) Start with your right arm extended out in front of your
body as shown in the far left picture.  Then pull your arm
behind you while trying to get the elbow back around
toward your spine.

2) The most natural way to do so is to position your
forearm facing downward in an on-top manner.  When
positioning the forearm so that it faces downward you
will be able to move the elbow further around than you
would with the forearm facing either inward or upward.  
If you first do so in a side-on manner, then turn your
forearm so your palm is facing down you will be able
move your elbow further back and around.
Swing Path (Trail Arm Action) Biomechanics:
On-Top, Side-On, & Under options
The pictures to the left demonstrate the three
basic trail arm actions employed during the
takeaway.  1)  Picture one shows the basic
address position. 2)  Picture 2 shows the basic
Under alignment.  Notice how EA's right forearm is
facing up toward the sky (Under alignment).  3)  
Picture 3 shows the basic Side-On Alignment.  
Notice how EA's right forearm is facing more
inward (Side-On alignment).  4)  Picture 4 shows
the basic On-Top alignment.  Notice how EA's
forearm is facing more downward toward the
ground (On-Top alignment).
The four pictures left demonstrate the three basic
trail arm alignments during the delivery phase of the
stroke.  1)  The basic address position.  2)  Picture
2 shows the basic Under alignment.  Notice how
EA's right forearm is facing up toward the sky
(Under alignment).  3)  Picture 3 shows the basic
Side-On alignment.  Notice how EA's right forearm
is facing more inward (Side-On alignment).  4)  
Picture 4 shows the basic On-Top alignment.  
Notice how EA's forearm is facing more downward
toward the ground (On-Top alignment).
The four pictures left demonstrate the three basic
trail arm actions from the down the line view.  1)  
The basic address position.  2)  Picture 2 shows the
basic Under alignment.  Notice how EA's right
forearm is facing up toward the sky (Under
alignment).  3)  Picture 3 shows the basic Side-On
alignment.  Notice how EA's right forearm is facing
more inward (Side-On alignment). 4)  Picture 4
shows the basic On-Top alignment.  Notice how
EA's forearm is facing more downward toward the
ground (On-Top alignment).
As we study the Trail Arm Actons you can think of the basic actions in terms of other athletic actions.  For example,  
The basic Under Option is used in tennis to play a drop shot or a cut shot.  The Side-On Option was used in the old days
of tennis to play the standard ground stroke.  The basic stroke was taught to me by my father when I was growing up.  
He reminded me to keep my forearm facing forward instead of upward or downward.  This is the basic side-on
alignment.  If you wanted some extra topspin you would roll the forearm so it faced downward through the impact
interval.  I am sure you can find many other examples in sports and life that relate to these basic paths.  Interestingly
enough in tennis, many different types of grips and racket alignments have been developed to help players with very
biomechanics be able to make the proper adjustments in their own individual games.  
Swing Track (Top of the Backswing Plane) Biomechanics:
Low-Track, Mid-Track, & High-Track options
As already mentioned their are three Top of the Backswing Plane options in the Power of 3 Golf biomehanics
system.  The three options are Low-Track, Mid-Track, and High-Track.  As you study the Top of the Backswing
feature you may notice that other teachers, methods, and systems have introduced concepts related to Top of
the Backswing Plane alignments.  By understanding these options you will be able to more thoroughly
understand how those methods work and whether those methods fit your individual needs.  Below are three
pictures depicting the basic top-set positions related to Low-Track, Mid-Track, and High-Track alignments.   
The far left picture above shows a Low-Track top of the backstroke position.  Notice how we can see some of Regie's shoulder
above his lead arm at the top of the backstroke.  This is a classic Low-Track top of the backstroke position.  The middle picture
above shows a Mid-Track top of the backstroke position.  Notice how EA's lead arm is aligned directly through his right
shoulder.  This is a classic Mid-Track top of the backstroke position.  It has been popularized in recent years as being the ideal
alignment at the top of backstroke, and there are many great players using this concept in today's game.  The far right picture
shows a High-Track top of the backstroke position.  Notice how the lead arm is aligned more vertical than the shoulder line.  
During the 1970's and early 1980's this top of the backstroke position was popularized by the famous adage, "High hands in the
backswing-High hands in the finish."  When we think of High-Track players, Davis Love III, Fred Couples, and John Daly come to
mind.   Many students often ask what are the advantages to one or the other patterns.  When it comes to biomechanics the only
advantages come from uses the options that match your biomechanical design.  Your body is built to use one of the three options
efficiently.  Attempting to use either of the other two will always be problematic.   

Many instructors have identified these patterns and built their systems around them.  For example, Jim Hardy has his One-Plane
and Two-Plane systems.  As we study his books it became clear that what Jim Hardy calls a One-Plane swing uses the
Mid-Track feature as the ideal One-Plane model.  However he also expresses that if the lead arm is aligned below  the shoulder
line than it also qualifies as a One-Plane model.  The definition of a Two-Plane swing is one in which the lead arm  swings
upward at a different angle than the shoulder line.  Therefore, it seems that his One-Plane swing model is one in which the lead
arm and shoulder line are aligned on One-Plane at the top of the backstroke.   In reality a Low-Track top of the backstroke
position aligns the lead arm at a different angle than the shoulder line.  Thus it would simply be a different type of Two-Plane
swing.    When biomechanics are applied, the argument of One-Plane or Two-Plane simply goes away.  Instead of defining the
top-set  position in  terms of plane angles we define them in terms of the lead arm alignment in relations to the shoulder line
alignment, and we address how each body's structure predisposes each golfer to use one of the three options.  An example of
another system that has identified these basic top of the backswing positions in their system is the LAW's system by Adams,
Tomasi, and Suttie.   As we study that system and compared it to the Swing Track options it becomes clear that the Leverage
Player described  in the book used Mid-Track biomechanics, the Arc Player uses High-Track biomechanics, and the Width
Player uses Low-Track biomechanics.   
Lever Delivery Biomechanics:
Covering, Cornering, & Extending options
As we study the biomechanics of how the wrist action creates leverage we come to understand that the wrists have
three basic ways of hinging while levering the golf club.  Keep in mind that when we say the "wrists have three basic
ways of hinging while levering the golf club" we are talking about the "grip assembly" as a whole.  Technically, or
anatomically, each wrists can only hinge in both the up-and-down or side-to-side manner.  Anatomically we they are
described as Radial and Ulnar Deviation as far as the up and down actions are concerned, and Flexion and Extension
as far as the side-to-side actions are concerned.  However, once the grip is established the assembly of the hands,
wrists and forearms allows us to lever the club throughout a full range of directions.  And there is a window in which
the levered actions can be used to effectively apply force.  

Picture 1) above shows the basic starting position for feeling how these hinge actions work.  Take hold of the club and
position it parallel to the ground at waist high. Picture 2) shows the horizontal hinge action.  From the starting position
you simply hinge your wrists so that the club moves Horizontally to the side. Picture 4) shows the basic vertical hinge
action.  From the starting position you simply hinge your wrists so that the club shaft moves vertically up toward your
nose.  Picture 3) shows the basic diagonal hinge action.  From the starting position you simply hinge your wrists so
that the shaft of the club moves diagonally upward and toward your right shoulder (left shoulder for left handed
golfers).  

The key is to discover which wrist hinge action produces the most structural leverage based on your biomechanical
design.  Many things contribute to the structural leverage you produce as you hinge your wrists.  The exact alignment
of each hand in relations to the shaft and each other, whether you use a long thumb or short thumb in your lead hand
grip on the club, whether you use a ten-finger, reverse overlap, overlap, or interlocking grip, and the actual structure of
your wrists.   Golfers that tend to have shorter and more stiff wrists tend to you vertical hinging.  For example, Tim
Clark (PGA Tour Player) cannot roll his wrist and forearm to face his palm up in the air.  When he gets change at the
drive-thru, he holds his hat out with his wrist in a vertical alignment so that the teller can put the change in the hat.  
This will certainly influence the way he hinges his wrists.  Once again, the key is to discover which action fits your
specific biomechanical needs.  All three options are valid, what make one more appropriate than another is whether it
fits your make-up or is a mismatch for you biomechanics.  One final note, once we identify which hinge action fits your
biomechanical design, we have identified the type of hinging that you will achieve by delivery and use during the
delivery process.  Though we like simple and clean descriptions, such as using the same hinging during the
backswing as we will use during delivery, that isn't always the case.  Many golfers use a different hinging action in the
backswing than they use during delivery.  There are a variety of reasons for doing so.  Some golfers need to use a
specific hinging action simple to achieve a sound top of the backswing position.  Others use a hinging action during
the backswing that simply allows them to get the proper forces into the handle of the club during transition so that they
can deliver the club properly.  And others find that one of the hinge actions during the backswing makes it easier to
slot the club during the downswing with the hinge action that matches their biomechanical designs.  There are other
reasons as well, but those examples should be enough to show that it is sometimes advantageous to use a different
hinging action in the backswing as compared to the one you will use during delivery.
Wrist Lever Biomechanics:
Horizontal, Vertical, & Diagonal options
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm
action for the covering delivery action.  The covering delivery
action is used by golfers that own an On-Top option.  (1) From
the basic address position (2) notice how the takeaway is
performed in an On-Top manner with the forearm facing
downward.  Picture (3) shows a palm down delivery action which
is used to create the first half of the covering feel.  Picture (4)
finishes off the covering delivery with an extension that is
achieved shortly after impact.  Once again the palm is facing
downward.  It is also facing inward and this completes the
covering feel.  In the sequence below we will see the same
action from the target view.
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm
action for the covering delivery action.  The covering delivery
action is used by golfers that own an On-Top option.  (1) From
the basic address position (2) the takeaway is performed in an
On-Top manner with the forearm facing downward.  Picture (3)
shows a palm down delivery action which is used to create the
first half of the covering feel.  Picture (4) finishes off the
covering delivery with an extension that is achieved shortly after
impact.  Once again the palm is facing downward.  It is also
facing inward and this completes the covering feel.
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm
action for the cornering delivery action.  The cornering delivery
action is used by golfers that own a Side-On option.  (1) From
the Side-On backswing alignment (notice how the forearm is
facing toward the side view) (2) the stroke moves into a
Side-On delivery action (once again the forearm is facing
Side-On).  Picture (3) demonstrates the Side-On extension, one
that is already beginning to corner.  Picture (4) finishes off the
cornering delivery with a follow-thru that corners around to the
left (right for left handed golfers) as it moves slightly above
waist high.  Once again the forearm is facing Side-On.  In the
sequence below we will see the same action from the target
view.
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm
action for the cornering delivery action.  The cornering delivery
action is used by golfers that own a Side-On option.  (1) From the
Side-On backswing alignment (notice how the forearm is facing
toward the side view) (2) the stroke moves into a Side-On delivery
action (once again the forearm is facing Side-On).  Picture (3)
demonstrates the Side-On extension, one that is already
beginning to corner.  Picture (4) finishes off the cornering delivery
with a follow-thru that corners around to the left (right for left
handed golfers) as it moves slightly above waist high.  Once again
the forearm is facing Side-On.
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm action
for the extending delivery action.  The extending delivery action is
used by golfers that own an Under option.  (1) From the Under
backswing alignment (notice how the forearm is facing more upward)
(2) the stroke moves into an Under delivery action (once again the
forearm is facing upward).  Picture (3) demonstrates the begining of
an Under extension delivery, one that is already beginning to push
down the line.  Picture (4) finishes off the extending delivery with a
follow-thru that extends down the line toward the target as it moves
thru shoulder high in the follow-thru.  In the sequence below we will
see the same action from the target view.
The sequence of photos to the left shows the basic trail arm action
for the extending delivery action.  The extending delivery action is
used by golfers that own an Under option.  (1) From the Under
backswing alignment (notice how the forearm is facing more upward)
(2) the stroke moves into an Under delivery action (once again the
forearm is facing upward).  Picture (3) demonstrates the begining of
an Under extension delivery, one that is already beginning to push
down the line.  Picture (4) finishes off the extending delivery with a
follow-thru that extends down the line toward the target as it moves
thru shoulder high in the follow-thru.
To acquire a feeling of how the horizontal wrist lever action works (1) start in the beginning position.  (2) Then
hinge your wrists so the club shaft moves horizontally, parallel to the ground, until the shaft is also parallel to the
ball line.  Your hands will remain at waist high. (3) Next, bend from your waist and assume an athletic posture.  (4)
Finish off the backswing while maintaining the horizontal lever action.  (5)  Notice how the clubface faces more
toward the sky than in traditional teachings.  The leading edge of the clubface is closer to parallel to the ground
then it is to being on plane.  This is often described as a closed clubface position at the top of the backswing.  It is
actually more square to the arc of the swing.You can also view this clubface position in the larger picture below.  
To acquire a feeling of how the vertical hinge lever action works (1) start in the beginning position.  (2) Then hinge
your wrists so the club shaft moves vertically toward your nose.  Your hands will remain at waist high. (3) Next,
bend from your waist and assume an athletic posture.  (4) Finish off the backswing while maintaining the vertical
lever action.  (5)  Notice how the clubface is aligned in such a way that the toe of the club is hanging nearly
straight down.  This is known to be an open clubface alignment at the top of the backswing.  It truly is open
because it is open to both the arc of the swing as well as the plane of the swing.  You can also view this clubface
position in the larger picture below.
To acquire a feeling of how the diagonal hinge lever action works (1) start in the beginning position.  (2) Then
hinge your wrists so the club shaft moves diagonally to the right at about a 45 degree angle between the
horizontal and vertical alignments.  Your hands will remain at waist high. (3) Next, bend from your waist and
assume an and vertical alignments.  Your hands will remain at waist high. (3) Next, bend from your waist and
assume an clubface is positioned in such a way that it is aligned exactly on the same plane as the left arm.  This
is known to athletic posture.  (4) Finish off the backswing while maintaining the diagonal lever action.  (5)  Notice
how the athletic posture.  (4) Finish off the backswing while maintaining the diagonal lever action.  (5)  Notice
how the clubface is positioned in such a way that it is aligned exactly on the same plane as the left arm.  This is
known to be a square clubface alignment at the top of the backswing.  In reality it is an on-plane clubface
alignment, and an on-plane clubface alignment is open to the arc of the swing and needs some squaring to
return the clubface square through the golf ball location.  You can also view this clubface position in the larger
picture below.
In picture (1) the clubface faces more toward the sky than is traditionally taught as being recommended.  This is
traditionally considered a closed clubface, however it is actually a square to the arc of the swing clubface
alignment.  In picture (2) the clubface is aligned so the toe of the club is hanging vertically downward.  This is
traditionally considered an open clubface and it is truely open to both the arc of the swing and the plane of the
swing.  In picture (3) we see the clubface aligned exactly on the plane of the left arm.  This is traditionally
considered a square clubace alignment.  It is actually an on-plane alignment and an on-plane alignment is open to
the arc of the swing and requires some squaring action to delivery the clubface square through the ball.  All three
lever hinge actions are valid and all three top-set positions are valid.  The questions is which one fits your
biomechanical needs.
Power  Golf
Related To The Fundamentals of Accuracy
B  I  O  M  E  C  H  A  N  I  C  S
3
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As a reminder, the Power of 3 Golf Biomechanics
related to Accuracy:

Swing Path – Trail Arm Action.  Addresses the 3 options related to the Trail Arm Forearm
alignment during delivery.
Swing Track – Top of Backswing Plane.  Addresses the 3 options for the lead arm alignment in
relations to the shoulder line at the top of the backswing.
Lever Wrist Action – Addresses the 3 options for levering the club with both hands on the club
using the grip assembly to lever the club during the backswing and downswing.
Lever Delivery Action – Addresses the 3 options for delivering the club through impact and into
the extension.

As mentioned above there are 3 options for each feature.  The options for the
biomechanics related to the fundamentals of accuracy are listed below.


Power of 3 Golf Biomechanics related to Accuracy:

Swing Path- Trail Arm ActionOn-Top, Side-On, & Under
Swing Track - Top of Backswing PlaneLow, Mid, & High
Wrist Lever ActionHorizontal, Vertical, & Diagonal
Lever Delivery ActionCovering, Cornering, & Extending
On this page we will overview the 4 Biomechanical features related  to Accuracy, and that means we will be
addressing the 4 structural influences that relate to the arm swing.  Study these features and familiarize yourself with
the 3 options related to each feature.  Simply familiarize yourself with the basic patterns.  If you are interested in
studying them in more detail you can purchase the Secrets Of Owning Your Swing book series.  That series
discusses the topics in more detail and includes was of screening and applying the information learned through the
screenings.  You can also click on the BioSwing Dynamics logo in the top left corner of this page to get to the
BioSwing Dynamics page which has more information about biomechanics and your golf swing.
Keep in mind these descriptions are offered as a general overview.  For further
explanations, ways of testing your body mechanics, and to study applications you can
study the Secrets of Owning Your Swing book series.
Keep in mind these descriptions are offered as a general overview.  For further
explanations, ways of testing your body mechanics, and to study applications you can
study the Secrets of Owning Your Swing book series.
Keep in mind these descriptions are offered as a general overview.  For further
explanations, ways of testing your body mechanics, and to study applications you can
study the Secrets of Owning Your Swing book series.
Covering Delivery Action
Cornering Delivery Action